User Tools

Site Tools


all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

Both sides previous revision Previous revision
all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises [2019/04/18 22:45]
192.252.166.4
all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises [2019/04/18 22:49] (current)
192.252.166.4
Line 11: Line 11:
 UNEPS will be a new UN formation. Thus, the UNEPS initiative is currently both a proposal and an advocacy campaign, coupled to an ongoing research project. Each aspect is a work in progress. UNEPS will be a new UN formation. Thus, the UNEPS initiative is currently both a proposal and an advocacy campaign, coupled to an ongoing research project. Each aspect is a work in progress.
  
-=== Ten Core Principles of the proposed UNEPS: ===+==== Ten Core Principles of the proposed UNEPS: ​====
  
   - a permanent standing, integrated UN formation;   - a permanent standing, integrated UN formation;
Line 24: Line 24:
   - a service to complement existing UN and regional arrangements,​ with a first responder to cover the initial six months until Member States can deploy.((World Federalist Movement - Canada, UNEPS Backgrounder,​ revised May 2016.)) ​   - a service to complement existing UN and regional arrangements,​ with a first responder to cover the initial six months until Member States can deploy.((World Federalist Movement - Canada, UNEPS Backgrounder,​ revised May 2016.)) ​
  
-=== What's Different? ===+==== What's Different? ​====
  
 A UNEPS would be a standing UN formation, ready to serve in diverse UN operations, immediately available upon authorization of the UN Security Council. With dedicated UN personnel, advanced doctrine, training and equipment, UN operations could get off to a good start quickly at the outset of a crisis. ​ A UNEPS would be a standing UN formation, ready to serve in diverse UN operations, immediately available upon authorization of the UN Security Council. With dedicated UN personnel, advanced doctrine, training and equipment, UN operations could get off to a good start quickly at the outset of a crisis. ​
Line 38: Line 38:
 Unlike previous proposals, a UNEPS is to complement existing UN arrangements,​ with a service that's gender-equitable,​ thus likely help to develop higher standards system-wide. Aside from being a more rapid and reliable life-saver, this option is also a cost-saver. Unlike previous proposals, a UNEPS is to complement existing UN arrangements,​ with a service that's gender-equitable,​ thus likely help to develop higher standards system-wide. Aside from being a more rapid and reliable life-saver, this option is also a cost-saver.
  
-=== The case for a UNEPS ===+==== The case for a UNEPS ====
  
 From Rwanda and Srebrenica to Myanmar and Syria, the pattern of 'too little, too late' -- incurring vast suffering, higher costs and wider consequences - has simply gone on for far too long. Instead of UN rapid deployment to prevent worse, routine delays allow worse. ​ From Rwanda and Srebrenica to Myanmar and Syria, the pattern of 'too little, too late' -- incurring vast suffering, higher costs and wider consequences - has simply gone on for far too long. Instead of UN rapid deployment to prevent worse, routine delays allow worse. ​
Line 55: Line 55:
 The UNEPS proposal is one step toward meeting these serious, recurring challenges. Without a dedicated UN Service, national military establishments will remain reluctant to support military transformation or shift away from further preparation for more war.  The UNEPS proposal is one step toward meeting these serious, recurring challenges. Without a dedicated UN Service, national military establishments will remain reluctant to support military transformation or shift away from further preparation for more war. 
  
-=== The projected expense and cost-effectiveness ===+==== The projected expense and cost-effectiveness ​====
  
 Developing a UNEPS will entail approximately $3 billion in start-up costs, with annual recurring costs of $1.5 billion, shared proportionally among 193 Member States. Clearly, there will be additional expenses in deploying a UNEPS, which would require strategic and tactical air-lift for early-in formations, as well as sea-lift for follow-on, heavier assets.((The UN Department of Field Support recently conducted a five-year study into a Global Field Support Strategy that demonstrates how logistics, supply and sustainment in operations might be improved to facilitate rapid development of a new UN formation.)) ​ Developing a UNEPS will entail approximately $3 billion in start-up costs, with annual recurring costs of $1.5 billion, shared proportionally among 193 Member States. Clearly, there will be additional expenses in deploying a UNEPS, which would require strategic and tactical air-lift for early-in formations, as well as sea-lift for follow-on, heavier assets.((The UN Department of Field Support recently conducted a five-year study into a Global Field Support Strategy that demonstrates how logistics, supply and sustainment in operations might be improved to facilitate rapid development of a new UN formation.)) ​
Line 61: Line 61:
 With such additional costs, the advantages must be substantive. A UNEPS should help to prevent the escalation of volatile conflicts; deter groups from violence; and cut the size, length, and frequency of UN operations. Success in just one of those areas would provide a real return on the investment. And there are other positive benefits in this development,​ which merit further consideration and investment. With such additional costs, the advantages must be substantive. A UNEPS should help to prevent the escalation of volatile conflicts; deter groups from violence; and cut the size, length, and frequency of UN operations. Success in just one of those areas would provide a real return on the investment. And there are other positive benefits in this development,​ which merit further consideration and investment.
  
-=== Origins of the proposal ===+==== Origins of the proposal ​====
  
 There have been numerous precedents outlining the requirements of a UN standing force or UN rapid reaction capacity, usually developed in response to tragic wars and/or genocides.((Among the various contributors to similar ideas were: Trygvie Lie; William R. Frye, the World Veterans Association;​ Lester B. Pearson; John Diefenbaker;​ Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn; D.W. Bowett; Lincoln Bloomfield; Boutros Boutros-Ghali;​ Sir Brian Urquhart; Robert Johansen; Alan Henrikson; the United Nations Association of the United States; Louis D. Huddleston; Captain Edward J. Dennehy, et al; David Cox; Stephen Kinloch-Pichet,​ and the Governments of the Netherlands and of Canada.)) One pivotal contribution arose from Saul Mendlovitz and Robert Johansen, who elaborated on UN Secretary-General Trygvie Lie's idea of a UN Legion, with the idea of a permanent force composed of dedicated, individually-recruited personnel rather than drawing on national armed forces.((See,​ Robert C Johansen and Saul Mendlovitz, “The Role of the Enforcement of Law in the Establishment of a New International Order: A Proposal for a Transnational Police Force”, //​Alternatives:​ A Journal of World Policy//, 6, 1980, pp. 307-338.)) ​ There have been numerous precedents outlining the requirements of a UN standing force or UN rapid reaction capacity, usually developed in response to tragic wars and/or genocides.((Among the various contributors to similar ideas were: Trygvie Lie; William R. Frye, the World Veterans Association;​ Lester B. Pearson; John Diefenbaker;​ Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn; D.W. Bowett; Lincoln Bloomfield; Boutros Boutros-Ghali;​ Sir Brian Urquhart; Robert Johansen; Alan Henrikson; the United Nations Association of the United States; Louis D. Huddleston; Captain Edward J. Dennehy, et al; David Cox; Stephen Kinloch-Pichet,​ and the Governments of the Netherlands and of Canada.)) One pivotal contribution arose from Saul Mendlovitz and Robert Johansen, who elaborated on UN Secretary-General Trygvie Lie's idea of a UN Legion, with the idea of a permanent force composed of dedicated, individually-recruited personnel rather than drawing on national armed forces.((See,​ Robert C Johansen and Saul Mendlovitz, “The Role of the Enforcement of Law in the Establishment of a New International Order: A Proposal for a Transnational Police Force”, //​Alternatives:​ A Journal of World Policy//, 6, 1980, pp. 307-338.)) ​
Line 79: Line 79:
 In 2001, Urquhart emphasized the need for a book elaborating on the Canadian study'​s option of a UN '​Standing Emergency Group'​. A multi-dimensional service, with a multi-functional capacity to help aligned with projected UN requirements. A civil society constituency was another objective. In response, with support from Don Krause at the Centre for UN Reform Education, Peter Langille published a book in 2002 that refined the concept, case, model, and plans for a UN Emergency Service.((Langille,​ //Bridging the Commitment: Capacity Gap: A Review of Existing Arrangements and Options for Enhancing UN Rapid Deployment//​ (Wayne, N.J.: Center for UN Reform Education, August 2002))) In 2001, Urquhart emphasized the need for a book elaborating on the Canadian study'​s option of a UN '​Standing Emergency Group'​. A multi-dimensional service, with a multi-functional capacity to help aligned with projected UN requirements. A civil society constituency was another objective. In response, with support from Don Krause at the Centre for UN Reform Education, Peter Langille published a book in 2002 that refined the concept, case, model, and plans for a UN Emergency Service.((Langille,​ //Bridging the Commitment: Capacity Gap: A Review of Existing Arrangements and Options for Enhancing UN Rapid Deployment//​ (Wayne, N.J.: Center for UN Reform Education, August 2002)))
  
-=== The UNEPS Initiative: a cooperative effort? ===+==== The UNEPS Initiative: a cooperative effort? ​====
  
 The World Federalist Movement-Canada (WFM-C) has been the institutional anchor of this initiative since 2000. It retains a small working group that collaborates with Langille (Global Common Security i3).((The WFM-C working group includes Robin Collins, Fergus Watt, Cameron Laing, Peter Langille and the frequent support of Larry Kazdan.)) Their plans are routinely updated to ensure they correspond to the more recent developments in UN peace operations. The World Federalist Movement-Canada (WFM-C) has been the institutional anchor of this initiative since 2000. It retains a small working group that collaborates with Langille (Global Common Security i3).((The WFM-C working group includes Robin Collins, Fergus Watt, Cameron Laing, Peter Langille and the frequent support of Larry Kazdan.)) Their plans are routinely updated to ensure they correspond to the more recent developments in UN peace operations.
Line 107: Line 107:
 In 2014, a substantive International Peace Institute (IPI) review of UN rapid deployment acknowledged that the UN reforms of the past twenty years had been far from sufficient. It concluded that deployments would remain slow and largely incapable of prevention and protection without a UNEPS.((Langille,​ “Improving United Nations Capacity for Rapid Deployment”,​ International Peace Institute, Providing for Peacekeeping Project #8, International Peace Institute, New York, October 2014. Available: http://​www.ipinst.org/​publication/​policy-papers/​detail/​440-improving-united-nations-capacity-for-rapid-deployment.html)) ​ Within the year, WFM-C submitted two detailed reports on the UNEPS option to two UN high-level reviews of peace operations.((See Langille, “Peacekeeping challenges require standing, not just standby, capacities: Time for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, A submission of the World Federalist Movement-Canada to the UN High-level Independent Panel reviewing peace operations, March 26, 2015. Available: http://​www.worldfederalistscanada.org/​HPL%20UNEPS%20for%20H-L-Panel%20March%2018%202015%20fnl.pdf. A similar report was also submitted to The Commission on Global Security, Justice & Governance in May 2015.)) Another book on UNEPS was published in 2015 to clarify further requirements and respond to several critiques.((Langille,​ “Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”))  ​ In 2014, a substantive International Peace Institute (IPI) review of UN rapid deployment acknowledged that the UN reforms of the past twenty years had been far from sufficient. It concluded that deployments would remain slow and largely incapable of prevention and protection without a UNEPS.((Langille,​ “Improving United Nations Capacity for Rapid Deployment”,​ International Peace Institute, Providing for Peacekeeping Project #8, International Peace Institute, New York, October 2014. Available: http://​www.ipinst.org/​publication/​policy-papers/​detail/​440-improving-united-nations-capacity-for-rapid-deployment.html)) ​ Within the year, WFM-C submitted two detailed reports on the UNEPS option to two UN high-level reviews of peace operations.((See Langille, “Peacekeeping challenges require standing, not just standby, capacities: Time for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, A submission of the World Federalist Movement-Canada to the UN High-level Independent Panel reviewing peace operations, March 26, 2015. Available: http://​www.worldfederalistscanada.org/​HPL%20UNEPS%20for%20H-L-Panel%20March%2018%202015%20fnl.pdf. A similar report was also submitted to The Commission on Global Security, Justice & Governance in May 2015.)) Another book on UNEPS was published in 2015 to clarify further requirements and respond to several critiques.((Langille,​ “Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”))  ​
  
-=== Support ===+==== Support ​====
  
 The UNEPS proposal is endorsed by various senior UN officials, former leaders of UN peace operations and an array of experts on peace, security and conflict world-wide. The UNEPS proposal is endorsed by various senior UN officials, former leaders of UN peace operations and an array of experts on peace, security and conflict world-wide.
Line 118: Line 118:
 In May 2018 at an event in Toronto: "How to Save the World in a Hurry,"​((See Science for Peace, “How to Save the World in a Hurry”, University College, Toronto, May 30 -31, 2018. https://​scienceforpeace.ca/​how-to-save-the-world-in-a-hurry/​)) ​ a consensus was expressed for a broad platform of 25 proposals on a variety of issues: the "​Platform for Survival."​ The UNEPS proposal was one of the six proposals addressing the problems of "War & Weapons."​((This wiki is part of the ongoing work that has followed the conference, which has since evolved into ”Project Save the World.”))  ​ In May 2018 at an event in Toronto: "How to Save the World in a Hurry,"​((See Science for Peace, “How to Save the World in a Hurry”, University College, Toronto, May 30 -31, 2018. https://​scienceforpeace.ca/​how-to-save-the-world-in-a-hurry/​)) ​ a consensus was expressed for a broad platform of 25 proposals on a variety of issues: the "​Platform for Survival."​ The UNEPS proposal was one of the six proposals addressing the problems of "War & Weapons."​((This wiki is part of the ongoing work that has followed the conference, which has since evolved into ”Project Save the World.”))  ​
  
-=== Impediments ===+==== Impediments ​====
  
 The UNEPS initiative continues to make progress, despite an unfavorable environment. ​ The UNEPS initiative continues to make progress, despite an unfavorable environment. ​
Line 136: Line 136:
 Yet in the words of Stephen Kinloch, "​driven back, the idea will, as in the past, ineluctably re-emerge, Phoenix-like,​ at the most favourable opportunity."​((Stephen P. Kinloch, “Utopian or Pragmatic? A UN Permanent Military Volunteer Force”, //​International Peacekeeping//,​ vol. 3, no. 4, Winter 1996, p. 185.))  ​ Yet in the words of Stephen Kinloch, "​driven back, the idea will, as in the past, ineluctably re-emerge, Phoenix-like,​ at the most favourable opportunity."​((Stephen P. Kinloch, “Utopian or Pragmatic? A UN Permanent Military Volunteer Force”, //​International Peacekeeping//,​ vol. 3, no. 4, Winter 1996, p. 185.))  ​
  
-=== Next Steps ===+==== Next Steps ====
  
 If there is to be a UNEPS, civil society must press political leaders to think big, bold and outward, encouraging multilateral cooperation,​ innovation and unprecedented shifts. Such a transformation may arise either after a tragic shock or when civil society reaches a tipping point of concern over the multiplying global challenges. ​ If there is to be a UNEPS, civil society must press political leaders to think big, bold and outward, encouraging multilateral cooperation,​ innovation and unprecedented shifts. Such a transformation may arise either after a tragic shock or when civil society reaches a tipping point of concern over the multiplying global challenges. ​
all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises.txt · Last modified: 2019/04/18 22:49 by 192.252.166.4