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all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises [2019/04/18 22:49]
192.252.166.4
all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises [2019/06/20 03:30] (current)
174.116.81.6 [Impediments]
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 Rapporteur: Dr. H. Peter Langille (hpl@globalcommonsecurity.org ) Rapporteur: Dr. H. Peter Langille (hpl@globalcommonsecurity.org )
  
-The objective of the proposed United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) is to develop a standing UN capacity that can respond rapidly and reliably to address four or more of the UN's long-standing challenges. A UNEPS is designed to help prevent armed conflict and genocide/​atrocity crimes; to protect civilians at risk; to ensure prompt start-up of demanding peace operations; and to address human needs in areas where others either cannot or will not.+The objective of the proposed United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) is to develop a standing UN capacity that can respond rapidly and reliably to address four of the UNs long-standing challenges. A UNEPS is designed to help prevent armed conflict and genocide/​atrocity crimes; to protect civilians at risk; to ensure prompt start-up of demanding peace operations; and to address human needs in areas where others either cannot or will not.
  
-In addition to the four primary roles identified, a UNEPS has emancipatory potential to help in the following areas: facilitating disarmament;​ freeing up enormous resources; saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war; and leading the world toward a legitimate, effective, universal peace system.+In addition to the four primary roles identified, a UNEPS has emancipatory potential to help in the following areas: facilitating disarmament;​ freeing up enormous resources ​wasted on war; saving succeeding generations from the scourge of war; and as a step toward a more legitimate, effective, universal peace system.
  
-Previous ​such advances usually have occurred ​in the aftermath of tragic wars and genocides, when the urgent need was still evident, ​though neither ​a viable plan nor a core constituency of support ​yet existed. This new effort endeavors to ensure ​that both are ready. Now, before the crises become overwhelming,​ is the time plan for developing ​a UNEPS.+A key lesson of previous experience is that favorable conditions for such a development tend to arise in the aftermath of tragic wars and genocides. Then, when the urgent need was evident, ​the prior preparation of a viable plan and a core constituency of support ​was not. This effort endeavors to ensure both are ready and sufficiently compelling to encourage development of a UNEPS before emergencies overwhelm.
  
-UNEPS will be a new UN formation. Thus, the UNEPS initiative is currently ​both a proposal and an advocacy campaign, coupled to an ongoing research project. Each aspect is a work in progress.+UNEPS will be a new UN formation. ​ Thus, the UNEPS initiative is both a proposal and an advocacy campaign, coupled to an ongoing research project. Each aspect is a work in progress. To succeed, each aspect needs wider support.
  
 ==== Ten Core Principles of the proposed UNEPS: ==== ==== Ten Core Principles of the proposed UNEPS: ====
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   - co-located at a designated UN base under an operational headquarters and two mobile mission headquarters;​   - co-located at a designated UN base under an operational headquarters and two mobile mission headquarters;​
   - at sufficient strength to operate in high-threat environments;​ and,   - at sufficient strength to operate in high-threat environments;​ and,
-  - a service to complement existing UN and regional arrangements,​ with a first responder to cover the initial six months until Member States can deploy.((World Federalist Movement - Canada, UNEPS Backgrounder,​ revised ​May 2016.)) ​+  - a service to complement existing UN and regional arrangements,​ with a first responder to cover the initial six months until Member States can deploy.((World Federalist Movement - Canada, UNEPS Backgrounder,​ revised ​January 2017. Available: https://​www.wfmcanada.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2016/​12/​0217-re-print-0516-uneps-backgrounder8-fnl.pdf)) 
  
 ==== What's Different? ==== ==== What's Different? ====
  
-A UNEPS would be a standing UN formation, ready to serve in diverse UN operations, immediately available upon authorization of the UN Security Council. With dedicated UN personnel, advanced doctrine, training and equipment, UN operations could get off to a good start quickly at the outset of a crisis. ​+A UNEPS would be a standing UN formation, ready to serve in diverse UN operations, immediately available upon authorization of the UN Security Council. With dedicated UN personnel, advanced doctrine, training and equipment, UN operations could get off to a good start quickly at the outset of a crisis.
  
-As a UNEPS is multidimensional service, ​it will include sufficient police to restore law and order, a military formation to deter aggression and maintain security, as well civilian teams to provide essential services for conflict resolution, human rights, health, disaster assistance and peacebuilding quick impact projects.+As a multidimensional service, ​a UNEPS will include sufficient police to restore law and order, a military formation to deter aggression and maintain security, as well civilian teams to provide essential services for conflict resolution, human rights, health, disaster assistance and peacebuilding quick impact projects.
  
 A multifunctional service ensures a cost-effective capacity to help with a wider array of task. With its modular formation, responses can be tailored for specific operational requirements. A multifunctional service ensures a cost-effective capacity to help with a wider array of task. With its modular formation, responses can be tailored for specific operational requirements.
 +A UNEPS is to be a first-in, first-out service, limited to deployments of six months. With a prompt, coherent start-up, it is to de-escalate and calm the crisis, averting the need for more or, if required, lay a solid foundation for follow-on efforts.
 + 
 +As a ‘UN 911’ first responder for complex emergencies,​ a UNEPS is not intended for war-fighting,​ but primarily to provide prompt, reliable help. Yet it may also serve as a vanguard, a strategic reserve, a robust protector and a security guarantor, both to deter violent crime and respond, when necessary, to prevent and protect.
  
-As a 'UN 911' first responder for complex emergencies, ​a UNEPS is not intended for war-fighting,​ but primarily to provide prompt, reliable help. Yet it may also serve as vanguarda strategic reserve, a robust protector ​and a security guarantorboth to deter violent crime and respondwhen necessary, to prevent ​and protect+Another distinct feature of a UNEPS is that it would be composed of devoted individuals recruited worldwide within ​UN rather than national service. After screening and selection on the basis of meritskill and commitmentits personnel would be co-located on UNEPS base where they would be extensively trained, equipped ​and employed by the UN. Thus, UNEPS is a new model. 
 +  
 +Unlike previous proposalsa UNEPS is to complement existing UN arrangementswith a service that’s gender-equitablewhich should help to develop higher standards system-wide. ​ Aside from being a more rapid and reliable life-saver, this option is also a cost-saver.
  
-A UNEPS is to be a first-in, first-out service, limited to the first six-month deployments. With a prompt, coherent start-up, it may avert the need for more or, lay a solid foundation for follow-on efforts if needed. ​ 
- 
-Unlike previous proposals, a UNEPS is to complement existing UN arrangements,​ with a service that's gender-equitable,​ thus likely help to develop higher standards system-wide. Aside from being a more rapid and reliable life-saver, this option is also a cost-saver. 
  
 ==== The case for a UNEPS ==== ==== The case for a UNEPS ====
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 People world-wide share a problem. According to research from the Institute for Economics and Peace, "the world is less peaceful today than at any time in the past decade"​.((Cited in Dominic Dudley, "Where And Why The World Is Getting More Dangerous",​ //​Forbes//,​ June 6, 2018. https://​www.forbes.com/​sites/​dominicdudley/​2018/​06/​06/​why-the-world-is-getting-more-dangerous/#​212535a6dc67)) "After declining for much of the 1990s, the number of major civil wars has almost tripled in the past decade"​.((Sebastian von Einsiedel, with Louise Bosetti, James Cockayne, Cale Salih and Wilfred Wan, "Civil War Trends and the Changing Nature of Armed Conflict",​ United Nations University Centre for Policy Research, Occasional Paper,​ United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, 10 March 2017. https://​collections.unu.edu/​eserv/​UNU:​6156/​Civil_war_trends_UPDATED.pdf. These authors also confirm that, "from 2011 to today, there has been a six-fold increase in battle deaths, with 2014 and 2015 being the deadliest years on the battlefield since the end of the Cold War."​ )) Global armed conflicts are also killing more. ((Richard Norton-Taylor,​ "​Global armed conflicts becoming more deadly, major study finds",​ //​The Guardian//,​  May 20, 2015 Available:​ https://​www.theguardian.com/​world/​2015/​may/​20/​armed-conflict-deaths-increase-syria-iraq-afghanistan-yemen)) "The chances of nuclear war are higher than they'​ve been in generations"​ -- a warning the UN disarmament chief recently conveyed to the UN Security Council.((Cited in Linda McQuaig, "​Prospect of nuclear war highest in decades, yet media ignores",​ //Toronto Star//, April 10, 2019. Available:​ https://​www.thestar.com/​opinion/​star-columnists/​2019/​04/​10/​prospect-of-nuclear-war-highest-in-decades-yet-media-ignores.html )) ​ With the Global Peace Index 2018 reporting the annual economic cost of violence (war and armed conflict) at a staggering $14.7 Trillion (USD), people know this isn't a safe or sustainable system.((Global Peace Index 2018, Institute for Economics and Peace. http://​visionofhumanity.org/​app/​uploads/​2018/​06/​Global-Peace-Index-2018-2.pdf. As reported, "The economic impact of violence on the global economy in 2017 was $14.76 trillion in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. This figure is equivalent to 12.4 per cent of the world’s economic activity (gross world product) or $1,988 for every person."​))  ​ People world-wide share a problem. According to research from the Institute for Economics and Peace, "the world is less peaceful today than at any time in the past decade"​.((Cited in Dominic Dudley, "Where And Why The World Is Getting More Dangerous",​ //​Forbes//,​ June 6, 2018. https://​www.forbes.com/​sites/​dominicdudley/​2018/​06/​06/​why-the-world-is-getting-more-dangerous/#​212535a6dc67)) "After declining for much of the 1990s, the number of major civil wars has almost tripled in the past decade"​.((Sebastian von Einsiedel, with Louise Bosetti, James Cockayne, Cale Salih and Wilfred Wan, "Civil War Trends and the Changing Nature of Armed Conflict",​ United Nations University Centre for Policy Research, Occasional Paper,​ United Nations University, Tokyo, Japan, 10 March 2017. https://​collections.unu.edu/​eserv/​UNU:​6156/​Civil_war_trends_UPDATED.pdf. These authors also confirm that, "from 2011 to today, there has been a six-fold increase in battle deaths, with 2014 and 2015 being the deadliest years on the battlefield since the end of the Cold War."​ )) Global armed conflicts are also killing more. ((Richard Norton-Taylor,​ "​Global armed conflicts becoming more deadly, major study finds",​ //​The Guardian//,​  May 20, 2015 Available:​ https://​www.theguardian.com/​world/​2015/​may/​20/​armed-conflict-deaths-increase-syria-iraq-afghanistan-yemen)) "The chances of nuclear war are higher than they'​ve been in generations"​ -- a warning the UN disarmament chief recently conveyed to the UN Security Council.((Cited in Linda McQuaig, "​Prospect of nuclear war highest in decades, yet media ignores",​ //Toronto Star//, April 10, 2019. Available:​ https://​www.thestar.com/​opinion/​star-columnists/​2019/​04/​10/​prospect-of-nuclear-war-highest-in-decades-yet-media-ignores.html )) ​ With the Global Peace Index 2018 reporting the annual economic cost of violence (war and armed conflict) at a staggering $14.7 Trillion (USD), people know this isn't a safe or sustainable system.((Global Peace Index 2018, Institute for Economics and Peace. http://​visionofhumanity.org/​app/​uploads/​2018/​06/​Global-Peace-Index-2018-2.pdf. As reported, "The economic impact of violence on the global economy in 2017 was $14.76 trillion in purchasing power parity (PPP) terms. This figure is equivalent to 12.4 per cent of the world’s economic activity (gross world product) or $1,988 for every person."​))  ​
  
-Countries world-wide lack the capacity to prevent armed conflict and protect civilians at risk. What they do have is frequently unavailable to the UN. Coalition attempts to protect tend to be too destructive and even counter-productive. ​+Countries world-wide lack the capacity to prevent armed conflict and to protect civilians at risk. What they do have is frequently ​either ​unavailable to the UN or inappropriate for UN peace operations. Coalition attempts to protect tend to be too destructive and even counter-productive. ​ 
  
 UN peace operations definitely help, but they'​re now relegated to post-conflict stabilization - putting a lid on a crisis once the fighting slows to allow the start of a peace process. For every operation, the UN faces an arduous process of renting the highly-valued resources of its member states, negotiating around their terms and accepting their conditions. Now it usually takes six-to-twelve months to deploy. ​ UN peace operations definitely help, but they'​re now relegated to post-conflict stabilization - putting a lid on a crisis once the fighting slows to allow the start of a peace process. For every operation, the UN faces an arduous process of renting the highly-valued resources of its member states, negotiating around their terms and accepting their conditions. Now it usually takes six-to-twelve months to deploy. ​
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 As a result, conflicts tend to escalate and spread, setting back the prospects for development and disarmament for decades. Then they require larger, longer UN operations at far higher costs. As a result, conflicts tend to escalate and spread, setting back the prospects for development and disarmament for decades. Then they require larger, longer UN operations at far higher costs.
  
-Does it seem odd that countries could put a man on the moon fifty years back, but have yet to equip the UN to meet its primary objective - "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war"? No, it's not that governments don't know how to start or what would work.((As early as 1961, officials in the US State Department identified a UN Peace Force as the key to disarmament. In their words, +Does it seem odd that countries could put a man on the moon fifty years back, but have yet to equip the UN to meet its primary objective - "to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war"? No, it's not that governments don't know how to start or what would work.((As early as 1961, officials in the US State Department identified a UN Peace Force as the key to disarmament. In their words,​“There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peacekeeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds.” See //Freedom from War: The United States program for general and complete disarmament in a peaceful world//, (United States. Dept. of State. Publication,​ 1961 Available: https://​babel.hathitrust.org/​cgi/​pt?​id=uc1.a0014375794;​view=1up;​seq=3)) Yet they won't develop such a service until they see a viable plan and feel the pressure of a broad-based,​ informed constituency. ​
-“There is an inseparable relationship between the scaling down of national armaments on the one hand and the building up of international peacekeeping machinery and institutions on the other. Nations are unlikely to shed their means of self-protection in the absence of alternative ways to safeguard their legitimate interests. This can only be achieved through the progressive strengthening of international institutions under the United Nations and by creating a United Nations Peace Force to enforce the peace as the disarmament process proceeds.” See //Freedom from War: The United States program for general and complete disarmament in a peaceful world//, (United States. Dept. of State. Publication,​ 1961))) Yet they won't develop such a service until they see a viable plan and feel the pressure of a broad-based,​ informed constituency. ​+
  
-The UNEPS proposal is one step toward meeting these serious, recurring challenges. Without a dedicated UN Service, national military establishments will remain reluctant to support military transformation or shift away from further preparation for more war. +The UNEPS proposal is one step toward meeting these serious, recurring challenges. Without a dedicated UN Service, national military establishments will remain reluctant to support ​UN peace operations, ​military transformation or any shift away from further preparation for more war.
  
 ==== The projected expense and cost-effectiveness ==== ==== The projected expense and cost-effectiveness ====
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 There have been numerous precedents outlining the requirements of a UN standing force or UN rapid reaction capacity, usually developed in response to tragic wars and/or genocides.((Among the various contributors to similar ideas were: Trygvie Lie; William R. Frye, the World Veterans Association;​ Lester B. Pearson; John Diefenbaker;​ Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn; D.W. Bowett; Lincoln Bloomfield; Boutros Boutros-Ghali;​ Sir Brian Urquhart; Robert Johansen; Alan Henrikson; the United Nations Association of the United States; Louis D. Huddleston; Captain Edward J. Dennehy, et al; David Cox; Stephen Kinloch-Pichet,​ and the Governments of the Netherlands and of Canada.)) One pivotal contribution arose from Saul Mendlovitz and Robert Johansen, who elaborated on UN Secretary-General Trygvie Lie's idea of a UN Legion, with the idea of a permanent force composed of dedicated, individually-recruited personnel rather than drawing on national armed forces.((See,​ Robert C Johansen and Saul Mendlovitz, “The Role of the Enforcement of Law in the Establishment of a New International Order: A Proposal for a Transnational Police Force”, //​Alternatives:​ A Journal of World Policy//, 6, 1980, pp. 307-338.)) ​ There have been numerous precedents outlining the requirements of a UN standing force or UN rapid reaction capacity, usually developed in response to tragic wars and/or genocides.((Among the various contributors to similar ideas were: Trygvie Lie; William R. Frye, the World Veterans Association;​ Lester B. Pearson; John Diefenbaker;​ Grenville Clark and Louis B. Sohn; D.W. Bowett; Lincoln Bloomfield; Boutros Boutros-Ghali;​ Sir Brian Urquhart; Robert Johansen; Alan Henrikson; the United Nations Association of the United States; Louis D. Huddleston; Captain Edward J. Dennehy, et al; David Cox; Stephen Kinloch-Pichet,​ and the Governments of the Netherlands and of Canada.)) One pivotal contribution arose from Saul Mendlovitz and Robert Johansen, who elaborated on UN Secretary-General Trygvie Lie's idea of a UN Legion, with the idea of a permanent force composed of dedicated, individually-recruited personnel rather than drawing on national armed forces.((See,​ Robert C Johansen and Saul Mendlovitz, “The Role of the Enforcement of Law in the Establishment of a New International Order: A Proposal for a Transnational Police Force”, //​Alternatives:​ A Journal of World Policy//, 6, 1980, pp. 307-338.)) ​
  
-The proposal for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) largely stemmed from a former Canadian government study on UN rapid deployment.((Government of Canada, //Towards A Rapid Reaction Capability for the United Nations//, (Ottawa, 1995).)) ​+The proposal for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service (UNEPS) largely stemmed from a former Canadian government study on UN rapid deployment.((Government of Canada, //Towards A Rapid Reaction Capability for the United Nations//, (Ottawa, 1995). ​Available: https://​s3.amazonaws.com/​piquant/​Langille/​Towards+a+Rapid+Reaction+Capability+for+the+United+Nations.pdf)) 
  
-That study was a response to both the UN Secretary-General's 1992 An Agenda for Peace and the Rwandan genocide. It was initially announced as a year-long examination of various innovative proposals, including the creation of a permanent rapid deployment force under UN command. Two members of the core working group were tasked to examine diverse options for a UN standing force.((Maxime Faille and Peter Langille were the individuals on the core working group tasked to this section. Major James Hammond provided the critical insight into the organization,​ planning and structure of a new UN formation. Carleton Hughes assisted with guidance on logistics, support and transport.)) A brief summary of the proposed standing UN Emergency Group was included in the Government report submitted to the UN General Assembly in 1995, with elaboration in a related publication of the Pearson Peacekeeping Training Centre.((See Peter Langille, Maxime Faille, Carlton Hughes, and Major James Hammond, “A Preliminary Blueprint of Long-Term Options for Enhancing a UN Rapid Reaction Capability” in David Cox and Albert Legault, (eds.) //UN Rapid Reaction Capabilities//,​ (Cornwallis:​ Pearson Peacekeeping Press, 1995))) ​+That study was a response to both the UN Secretary-Generals 1992 An Agenda for Peace and the Rwandan genocide. It was initially announced as a year-long, in-depth ​examination of various innovative proposals, including the creation of a permanent rapid deployment force under UN command. Two members of the core working group were tasked to examine diverse options for a UN standing force.((Maxime Faille and Peter Langille were the individuals on the core working group tasked to this section. Major James Hammond provided the critical insight into the organization,​ planning and structure of a new UN formation. Carleton Hughes assisted with guidance on logistics, support and transport.)) ​ A brief summary of the proposed standing UN Emergency Group was included in the Government report submitted to the UN General Assembly in 1995, with elaboration in a related publication of the Pearson Peacekeeping Training Centre.((See Peter Langille, Maxime Faille, Carlton Hughes, and Major James Hammond, “A Preliminary Blueprint of Long-Term Options for Enhancing a UN Rapid Reaction Capability” in David Cox and Albert Legault, (eds.) //UN Rapid Reaction Capabilities//,​ (Cornwallis:​ Pearson Peacekeeping Press, 1995 Available: https://​s3.amazonaws.com/​piquant/​Langille/​A+Preliminary+Blueprint+of+Long-Term+Options+for+Enhancing+a+UN+Rapid+Reaction+Capability.pdf))) 
  
 The study was carried out in close consultation with multinational partners, military advisors, and the advice of UN officials. It was followed by a multinational initiative of twenty-eight UN member states in the Friends of UN Rapid Deployment. ​ The study was carried out in close consultation with multinational partners, military advisors, and the advice of UN officials. It was followed by a multinational initiative of twenty-eight UN member states in the Friends of UN Rapid Deployment. ​
  
-Soon after it was announced, the official focus shifted ​from a UN standing force toward more pragmatic, readily ​accepted ​reforms for UN rapid deployment over the short-mid-, to long-term. A standing ​UN Emergency Group was not the preferred option of Canadian or other national military establishments. ​Thus, it was relegated to long-term concern and denied attention ​or support. ​+Soon after being announced, ​events transpired to shift the official focus away from a UN standing force toward ​the more pragmatic, readily-agreeable ​reforms for UN rapid deployment over the short-mid-, to long-term. A Standing ​UN Emergency Group was not the preferred option of Canadian or other national military establishments. ​As such, it was relegated to the long-term concern and denied ​the attention ​and support ​announced
  
 Yet the study, process, impediments and prospects were deeply scrutinized in a subsequent, independent research effort. The lessons-learned created a better sense of what might work and what definitely wouldn'​t.((See Langille, “In Pursuit of Common Security: Initiatives to Enhance Training, Role Specialization and Rapid Deployment for United Nations Peace Operations”,​ PhD dissertation,​ University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, 1999)) Yet the study, process, impediments and prospects were deeply scrutinized in a subsequent, independent research effort. The lessons-learned created a better sense of what might work and what definitely wouldn'​t.((See Langille, “In Pursuit of Common Security: Initiatives to Enhance Training, Role Specialization and Rapid Deployment for United Nations Peace Operations”,​ PhD dissertation,​ University of Bradford, Department of Peace Studies, 1999))
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 The inspiration for the earlier standing option and ongoing efforts was wider, but often from Sir Brian Urquhart, the study'​s co-chair. As a pioneer of UN peacekeeping and former UN Under-Secretary General for Political Affairs, Urquhart had already stirred a high-level debate with his proposal for a 'UN volunteer military force'​.((See Brian Urquhart, “For a UN Volunteer Military Force”, //New York Review of Books//, 40, June 10, 1993. https://​www.nybooks.com/​articles/​1993/​06/​10/​for-a-un-volunteer-military-force/​)) ​ The inspiration for the earlier standing option and ongoing efforts was wider, but often from Sir Brian Urquhart, the study'​s co-chair. As a pioneer of UN peacekeeping and former UN Under-Secretary General for Political Affairs, Urquhart had already stirred a high-level debate with his proposal for a 'UN volunteer military force'​.((See Brian Urquhart, “For a UN Volunteer Military Force”, //New York Review of Books//, 40, June 10, 1993. https://​www.nybooks.com/​articles/​1993/​06/​10/​for-a-un-volunteer-military-force/​)) ​
  
-In 2001, Urquhart emphasized the need for a book elaborating on the Canadian study'​s option of a UN '​Standing Emergency Group'​. A multi-dimensional service, with a multi-functional capacity to help aligned with projected UN requirements. A civil society constituency was another objective. In response, with support from Don Krause at the Centre for UN Reform Education, Peter Langille published a book in 2002 that refined the concept, case, model, and plans for a UN Emergency Service.((Langille,​ //Bridging the Commitment: Capacity Gap: A Review of Existing Arrangements and Options for Enhancing UN Rapid Deployment//​ (Wayne, N.J.: Center for UN Reform Education, August 2002)))+In 2001, Urquhart emphasized the need for a book elaborating on the Canadian study'​s option of a UN '​Standing Emergency Group'​. A multi-dimensional service, with a multi-functional capacity to helpaligned with projected UN requirements. A civil society constituency was another objective. In response, with support from Don Krause at the Centre for UN Reform Education, Peter Langille published a book in 2002 that refined the concept, case, model, and plans for a UN Emergency Service.((Langille,​ //Bridging the Commitment: Capacity Gap: A Review of Existing Arrangements and Options for Enhancing UN Rapid Deployment//​ (Wayne, N.J.: Center for UN Reform Education, August 2002) Available: http://​globalcommonsecurity.info/​drpeterlangille/​wp-content/​uploads/​2034/​12/​HPL-Bridging-the-Commitment...-1.pdf))
  
 ==== The UNEPS Initiative: a cooperative effort? ==== ==== The UNEPS Initiative: a cooperative effort? ====
  
-The World Federalist Movement-Canada (WFM-C) has been the institutional anchor of this initiative since 2000. It retains a small working group that collaborates with Langille ​(Global Common Security i3).((The WFM-C working group includes Robin Collins, Fergus Watt, Cameron Laing, Peter Langille and the frequent support of Larry Kazdan.)) Their plans are routinely updated to ensure they correspond to the more recent developments in UN peace operations.+The World Federalist Movement-Canada (WFM-C) has been the institutional anchor of this initiative since 2000. It retains a small working group that collaborates with Langille.((The WFM-C working group includes Robin Collins, Fergus Watt, Cameron Laing, Peter Langille and the frequent support of Larry Kazdan.)) Their plans are routinely updated to ensure they correspond to the more recent developments in UN peace operations.
  
-Following ​a 2003 forum in Santa Barbara, co-hosted by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and the Simons Foundation, three American NGOs assumed ​a lead role.((For an overview of the founding conference of the UNEPS initiative see, Justine Wang, “A Symposium on Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: The Challenge of Prevention and Enforcement”,​ Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Santa Barbara, December 5-6, 2003. http://​www.wagingpeace.org/​author/​justine-wang/​)) ​+A wider initiative for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service followed on from a 2003 forum in Santa Barbara, co-hosted by the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and the Simons Foundation, ​with three American NGOs assuming ​a lead role.((For an overview of the founding conference of the UNEPS initiative see, Justine Wang, “A Symposium on Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: The Challenge of Prevention and Enforcement”,​ Nuclear Age Peace Foundation, Santa Barbara, December 5-6, 2003. http://​www.wagingpeace.org/​author/​justine-wang/​)) ​
  
-This wider initiative for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service ​commenced ​under the leadership of the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (NAPF), Global Action to Prevent War (GAPW) and the World Federalist Movement's Institute for Global Policy (WFM-IGP). The Simons Foundation funded specific GAPW events. At the initial forum, David Krieger suggested that 'peace' ​be included in the title. There was also agreement that Langille's 2002 book be their background book and there was unanimous support for the idea of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service.+This commenced ​with the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation (NAPF), Global Action to Prevent War (GAPW) and the World Federalist Movements Institute for Global Policy (WFM-IGP). At their initial forum, David Krieger suggested that peace’ be included in the title. There was also wider agreement that Langilles 2002 book be their background book, with unanimous support for the idea of a United Nations Emergency Peace Service.
  
-In 2005, Saul Mendlovitz of GAPW organized an encouraging global conference on UNEPS in Cuenca, Spain, with financial assistance from the Ford Foundation. ​There was consensus among the representatives of diverse sectors on the need to improve UN rapid deployment. There was also agreement that the UNEPS concept was appealing, the case was compelling, and the political prospects ​more favorable ​than previous options.((For a report of this event see, Robert C. Johansen, “Expert Discussion Of The United Nations Emergency Peace Service: The Cuenca Report”, in Johansen (ed.), //A United Nations Emergency Peace Service: To Prevent Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity//, (with the support of Global Action to Prevent War, the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and the World Federalist Movement), 2006.)) ​+In 2005, Saul Mendlovitz of GAPW organized an encouraging global conference on UNEPS in Cuenca, Spain, with financial assistance from the Ford Foundation. ​Drawing on representatives of diverse sectors, there was consensus ​on the need to improve UN rapid deployment, as well as agreement that the UNEPS concept was appealing, the case was compelling, ​the model more appropriate ​and the political prospects ​appeared better ​than previous options.((For a report of this event see, Robert C. Johansen, “Expert Discussion Of The United Nations Emergency Peace Service: The Cuenca Report”, in Johansen (ed.), //A United Nations Emergency Peace Service: To Prevent Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity//, (with the support of Global Action to Prevent War, the Nuclear Age Peace Foundation and the World Federalist Movement), 2006. Available: http://​www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/​files/​UNEPS_PUBLICATION.pdf)) 
  
-The need for gender-equitable composition in the proposed UNEPS was raised by Rebecca Johnson of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy at subsequent conference in Vancouver. Robert Johansen of the Kroc Institute also recommended that this service include a justice and corrections capacity as one of the diverse civilian elements. Robert Zuber was introduced as a new fund-raiser for UNEPS and GAPW.+The need for gender-equitable composition in the proposed UNEPS was raised by Rebecca Johnson of the Acronym Institute for Disarmament Diplomacy at subsequent conference in Vancouver. Robert Johansen of the Kroc Institute also recommended that this service include a justice and corrections capacity as one of the diverse civilian elements. Robert Zuber was introduced as a new fund-raiser for UNEPS and GAPW.
  
-In 2006, with financial support of the Ford Foundation, the three NGOs published a book edited by Robert Johansen, A United Nations Emergency Peace Service: To Prevent Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity.((See,​ Johansen (ed.), //A United Nations Emergency Peace Service//​.)) ​+In 2006, with financial support of the Ford Foundation, the three NGOs published a book edited by Robert Johansen, A United Nations Emergency Peace Service: To Prevent Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity.((See,​ Johansen (ed.), //A United Nations Emergency Peace Service//​.)) ​The wider focus and four primary objectives of the UNEPS proposal shifted to the narrower preference of the American NGOs. Yet encouraging efforts were underway. ​
  
 In 2007, thirty members of Congress supported H-Res 213, "​expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that a United Nations Emergency Peace Service capable of intervening in the early stages of a humanitarian crisis could save millions of lives, billions of dollars, and is in the interests of the United States."​((U.S. Congress,​ H.Res.213:​ 110th Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, March, 2007. Available:​ https://​www.congress.gov/​bill/​110th-congress/​house-resolution/​213))  ​ In 2007, thirty members of Congress supported H-Res 213, "​expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that a United Nations Emergency Peace Service capable of intervening in the early stages of a humanitarian crisis could save millions of lives, billions of dollars, and is in the interests of the United States."​((U.S. Congress,​ H.Res.213:​ 110th Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, March, 2007. Available:​ https://​www.congress.gov/​bill/​110th-congress/​house-resolution/​213))  ​
  
-In 2008, another promising conference in Brisbane prompted high-level interest in Japan.((The Brisbane conference was organized by Global Action to Prevent War and co-hosted by Steve Kilelea and the Simons Foundation.)) For a brief period, Japanese officials offered to host a UNEPS base and to provide related support. ​However, the next few years were marked ​by disputes. The international steering group disbanded within a year.   +In 2008, another promising conference in Brisbane prompted high-level interest in Japan.((The Brisbane conference was organized by Global Action to Prevent War and co-hosted by Steve Kilelea and the Simons Foundation.)) For a brief period, Japanese officials offered to host a UNEPS base and to provide related support. ​ 
 + 
 +In March of 2008prior to his first election, Presidential candidate, Barack Obama responded directly to the UNEPS proposal ​by writing, "I do not support the creation and funding of the United Nations Emergency Peace Service"​.((See, Howard Salter, “Global Cooperation: ​The Candidates Speak”, Foreign Policy in Focus, March 26, 2008. http://​fpif.org/​global_cooperation_the_candidates_speak/​)) ​ American support for the UNEPS proposal diminished.((American support diminished further when a number of conference participants stressed that a UNEPS should come from anywhere except America.)) A potentially promising ​international steering group was disbanded within a year.   Two of the three American NGOs already had moved on, leaving GAPW to coordinate limited efforts, with insufficient resources. ​ WFM-C cooperation continued both independently and in occasional partnership with GAPW.    ​
  
-In March of 2008prior to his first election, Presidential candidate, Barack Obama responded directly to the UNEPS proposal by writing, "I do not support ​the creation and funding ​of the United Nations Emergency Peace Service"​.((See, Howard Salter, “Global CooperationThe Candidates Speak”, Foreign Policy in FocusMarch 262008http://fpif.org/global_cooperation_the_candidates_speak/))  American support for the UNEPS proposal diminished.((American support diminished further when a number of conference participants stressed that a UNEPS should come anywhere except America.)) Two of the three American NGOs already had moved onleaving GAPW to coordinate limited effortswith the occasional cooperation of WFM-C. That partnership concluded in 2013.+In 2013, the Department of Peace Studies at the University ​of Bradford, where related research had been done in the nineties, hosted a seminar focused on UN rapid deployment and UNEPS. Their report generated doubts and divisions.((See ​Robert Zuber and David Curran, “Peacekeeping and Rapid ReactionTowards the establishment of cosmopolitan capacities for rapid deployment”, Workshop ReportDivision of Peace StudiesUniversity of Bradford, July 8, 2013Available: https://www.bradford.ac.uk/social-sciences/media/​socialsciences/​peacestudies/​Bradford-Write-Up-Sept.pdfFor a thoughtful response to the Bradford Report seeRobin Collins, “Shouldn’t UNEPS Advocacy be Front and Centre?”, //Global Policy Responses//,​ November 13, 2013. https://​www.globalpolicyjournal.com/​blog/​13/​11/​2013/​gp-responses-shouldn%E2%80%99t-uneps-advocacy-be-front-and-centre))
  
-Several case studies were published analyzing UNEPS applicability in specific conflicts.((See Langille, “Preventing Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: One innovation and new global initiative”,​ Amanda Gryzb, (ed.) //Darfur and the World//, (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2009). Also see Annie Herro, Wendy Lambourne and David Penklis, “Peacekeeping and peace enforcement in Africa: The potential contribution of a UN Emergency Peace Service”, ​//African Security Review//, Volume 18, Issue 1, (Taylor & Francis) 2009.)) Operational plans were developed for training, dovetailing with UN multinational operations, and sequencing deployments and support. The option attracted critical analysis, including regional perspectives. ​   +Several case studies were published analyzing UNEPS applicability in specific conflicts.((SeeLangille, “Preventing Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity: One innovation and new global initiative”,​ Amanda Gryzb, (ed.) Darfur and the World, (Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press, 2009). ​Available: https://​www.wfmcanada.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2016/​12/​Langille-Preventing-Genocide.pdf ​Also seeAnnie Herro, Wendy Lambourne and David Penklis, “Peacekeeping and peace enforcement in Africa: The potential contribution of a UN Emergency Peace Service”, African Security Review, Volume 18, Issue 1, (Taylor & Francis) 2009. Available: https://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​abs/​10.1080/​10246029.2009.9627514)) Operational plans were developed for training, dovetailing with UN multinational operations, and sequencing deployments and support. The option attracted critical analysis, including regional perspectives. ​ 
  
-In 2013, the Department of Peace Studies at the University of Bradfordwhere related research had been done in the ninetieshosted ​seminar focused on UN rapid deployment and UNEPS. Their report generated doubts and divisions.((See ​Robert Zuber and David Curran“Peacekeeping ​and Rapid Reaction: Towards ​the establishment ​of cosmopolitan capacities ​for rapid deployment”Workshop Report, Division of Peace Studies, University ​of Bradford, July 8, 2013Available: ​https://www.bradford.ac.uk/​social-sciences/​media/​socialsciences/peacestudies/Bradford-Write-Up-Sept.pdf. For a thoughtful response to the Bradford Report ​see, Robin Collins, “Shouldn’t UNEPS Advocacy be Front and Centre?”, //Global Policy Responses//, November 132013. https://​www.globalpolicyjournal.com/​blog/​13/​11/​2013/​gp-responses-shouldn%E2%80%99t-uneps-advocacy-be-front-and-centre)) +GAPW affiliates subsequently published two books on UNEPS raising variations on the themeits applicability to specific regionseven different model with an American force structure.((See ​Annie Herro, UN //Emergency Peace Service ​and the Responsibility to Protect//(Oxford: Routledge Books, 2014). Also see Saul Mendlovitz, Edward Westfall ​and Stephen Bishop, //Draft Statute for the Formation and Operation ​of the United Nations Emergency Peace Service ​for the Prevention of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity//(NewarkRutgers ​University, 2013Available: ​http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~govdocs/UNEPS_Statute.pdf. For further elaboration of the concerns raised by eac,h see Langille, //Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service: Meeting Our Responsibilities to Prevent and Protect//, (Basingstoke:​ Palgrave Macmillan2015))) 
  
-GAPW affiliates subsequently published two books on UNEPS raising variations on the themeits applicability to specific regions, even different model with an American force structure.((See Annie Herro, ​UN //Emergency Peace Service and the Responsibility to Protect//, (Oxford: Routledge Books, 2014)Also see Saul Mendlovitz, Edward Westfall ​and Stephen Bishop//Draft Statute for the Formation and Operation of the United Nations ​Emergency ​Peace Service ​for the Prevention of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity//(NewarkRutgers University2013) http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~govdocs/UNEPS_Statute.pdf. For further elaboration of the concerns raised by eac,h see Langille, ​//Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service: Meeting Our Responsibilities to Prevent and Protect//, (Basingstoke:​ Palgrave Macmillan, 2015))) +In 2014, a substantive International Peace Institute ​(IPI) review of UN rapid deployment acknowledged that the UN reforms of the past twenty years had been far from sufficientIt concluded that deployments would remain slow and largely incapable of prevention and protection without a UNEPS.((Langille“Improving ​United Nations ​Capacity for Rapid Deployment”,​ International ​Peace Institute, Providing ​for Peacekeeping Project #8International Peace InstituteNew YorkOctober 2014. Available: ​http://www.ipinst.org/publication/policy-papers/detail/440-improving-united-nations-capacity-for-rapid-deployment.html))  
  
-In 2014, a substantive International Peace Institute (IPI) review of UN rapid deployment acknowledged that the UN reforms of the past twenty years had been far from sufficient. It concluded that deployments would remain slow and largely incapable of prevention and protection without a UNEPS.((Langille,​ “Improving United Nations Capacity for Rapid Deployment”,​ International Peace Institute, Providing for Peacekeeping Project #8, International Peace Institute, New York, October 2014. Available: http://​www.ipinst.org/​publication/​policy-papers/​detail/​440-improving-united-nations-capacity-for-rapid-deployment.html))  ​Within the year, WFM-C submitted two detailed reports on the UNEPS option to two UN high-level reviews of peace operations.((See Langille, “Peacekeeping challenges require standing, not just standby, capacities: Time for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, A submission of the World Federalist Movement-Canada to the UN High-level Independent Panel reviewing peace operations, March 26, 2015. Available: http://​www.worldfederalistscanada.org/​HPL%20UNEPS%20for%20H-L-Panel%20March%2018%202015%20fnl.pdf. A similar report was also submitted to The Commission on Global Security, Justice & Governance in May 2015.)) Another book on UNEPS was published in 2015 to clarify further requirements and respond to several critiques.((Langille,​ “Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”))  ​+Within the year, WFM-C submitted two detailed reports on the UNEPS option to two UN high-level reviews of peace operations.((See Langille, “Peacekeeping challenges require standing, not just standby, capacities: Time for a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, A submission of the World Federalist Movement-Canada to the UN High-level Independent Panel reviewing peace operations, March 26, 2015. Available: http://​www.worldfederalistscanada.org/​HPL%20UNEPS%20for%20H-L-Panel%20March%2018%202015%20fnl.pdf. A similar report was also submitted to The Commission on Global Security, Justice & Governance in May 2015.)) Another book on UNEPS was published in 2015 to clarify further requirements and respond to several critiques.((Langille,​ “Developing a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”))  ​
  
 ==== Support ==== ==== Support ====
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 The UNEPS proposal is endorsed by various senior UN officials, former leaders of UN peace operations and an array of experts on peace, security and conflict world-wide. The UNEPS proposal is endorsed by various senior UN officials, former leaders of UN peace operations and an array of experts on peace, security and conflict world-wide.
  
-An encouraging boost to the initiative arose from the 2017 UK Labour Party Manifesto, "For the Many, Not the Few"​.((Langille,​ “UK Labour supports a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, //Open Democracy//,​ August 15, 2018. https://​www.opendemocracy.net/​howard-peter-langille/​uk-labour-supports-united-nations-emergency-peace-service)) It noted, "​Labour will commit to effective UN peacekeeping,​ including support for a UN Emergency Peace Service."​((British Labour Party Manifesto, For the Many, Not the Few (London, June 2017), p. 120.)) Bilateral discussions with other parties were reported to be positive.+An encouraging boost to the initiative arose from the 2017 UK Labour Party Manifesto, "For the Many, Not the Few"​.((Langille,​ “UK Labour supports a United Nations Emergency Peace Service”, //Open Democracy//,​ August 15, 2018. https://​www.opendemocracy.net/​howard-peter-langille/​uk-labour-supports-united-nations-emergency-peace-service)) It noted, "​Labour will commit to effective UN peacekeeping,​ including support for a UN Emergency Peace Service."​((British Labour Party Manifesto, For the Many, Not the Few(London, June 2017), p. 120 
 +Available: ​ http://www.labour.org.uk/​page/​-/​Images/​manifesto-2017/​Labour%20Manifesto%202017.pdf 
 +)) Bilateral discussions with other parties were reported to be encouraging.
  
-Media coverage is positive but sporadic. For example, in 2016 the editorial board of the //Toronto Star// suggested that the Canadian government support UNEPS.((See “How We Can Keep The Peace”, (editorial, The Star’s View) //Toronto Star//, August 10, 2016. http://​globalcommonsecurity.info/​drpeterlangille/​wp-content/​uploads/​2016/​12/​Toronto-Star-on-UNEPS-August-10-2016.pdf)) Yet support of the peace and disarmament community was thin until 2017, when a joint Group of 78 and Rideau Institute ​conference was held, '​Getting to Nuclear Zero: Building Common Security for a Post-MAD World.'​ Leading civil society organizations backed the initiative as part of a wider agenda entitled, "A Shift to Sustainable Peace and Common Security"​.((The ​Rideau Institute and the Group of 78, “A Shift to Sustainable Peace and Common Security”,​ DEFENCE and FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES: Recommendations by Leading Canadian Civil Society Organizations,​ Ottawa, (Updated 1 April 2018). https://​group78.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​09/​2018-Update-A-Shift-to-Sustainable-Peace-and-Common-Security.pdf+Media coverage is positive but sporadic. For example, in 2016 the editorial board of the //Toronto Star// suggested that the Canadian government support UNEPS.((See “How We Can Keep The Peace”, (editorial, The Star’s View) //Toronto Star//, August 10, 2016. http://​globalcommonsecurity.info/​drpeterlangille/​wp-content/​uploads/​2016/​12/​Toronto-Star-on-UNEPS-August-10-2016.pdf)) Yet support of the peace and disarmament community was thin until 2017, when a Group of 78 conference was held, '​Getting to Nuclear Zero: Building Common Security for a Post-MAD World.'​ Leading civil society organizations backed the initiative as part of a wider agenda entitled, "A Shift to Sustainable Peace and Common Security"​.((The Group of 78 and Rideau Institute, “A Shift to Sustainable Peace and Common Security”,​ DEFENCE and FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES: Recommendations by Leading Canadian Civil Society Organizations,​ Ottawa, (Updated 1 April 2018). https://​group78.org/​wp-content/​uploads/​2018/​09/​2018-Update-A-Shift-to-Sustainable-Peace-and-Common-Security.pdf
 ))  )) 
  
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 The lack of a transnational advocacy network (TAN) remains a problem. With neither government nor foundation support, the research and educational outreach efforts of WFM-C have been limited since 2004 to an all-volunteer effort. ​ The lack of a transnational advocacy network (TAN) remains a problem. With neither government nor foundation support, the research and educational outreach efforts of WFM-C have been limited since 2004 to an all-volunteer effort. ​
  
-Labour's interest ​prompted challenges from where least expected. The Oxford Research Group (ORG) was at the forefront.((Richard Reeve, “UN Peacekeeping and the 2017 Election”,​ Oxford Research Group, May 17, 2017. Available: https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​un-peacekeeping-and-the-2017-election)) ​ ​Following on to ridicule, ​Richard Gowan berated the idea and its political proponents.((See Richard Gowan, ​ “In the U.K. Elections, a Post-Brexit Internationalist Vision Comes Into Focus”, //World Politics Review//, June 5, 2017.  In Gowan’s words, “Labour offers to back a ‘U.N. Emergency Peace Service,’ which sounds very much like a standing international army. This is the sort of concept that you only promise to back if you write a manifesto believing you have no chance of victory."​ https://​www.worldpoliticsreview.com/​articles/​22350/​in-the-u-k-elections-a-post-brexit-internationalist-vision-comes-into-focus)) A GAPW affiliate wrote about the '​demise'​ of the UNEPS initiative, citing the absence of a TAN.((Annie Herro, “The Quest for a United Nations Standing Army”, Oxford Research Group, March 22, 2018. As Dr. Herro writes, “I have studied the role that a transnational advocacy network has played in contributing to the demise of the most recent proposal for a UN standing force — the UN Emergency Peace Service proposal — yet similar findings could be applied to previous proposals.”https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​Blog/​the-quest-for-a-united-nations-standing-army)) ORG's senior fellow, Paul Rogers, proposed a compromise: a UN Standing Force, composed of national militaries, with UK forces in a lead role.((Paul Rogers, “Sustainable Security: Global Ideas for a Greater Britain”, Oxford Research Group, June 29, 2018. https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​sustainable-security-global-ideas-for-a-greater-britain))  ​+The support of the UK Labour ​Party prompted challenges from where least expected. The Oxford Research Group (ORG) was at the forefront.((Richard Reeve, “UN Peacekeeping and the 2017 Election”,​ Oxford Research Group, May 17, 2017. Available: https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​un-peacekeeping-and-the-2017-election)) Richard Gowan berated the idea and its political proponents.((See Richard Gowan, ​ “In the U.K. Elections, a Post-Brexit Internationalist Vision Comes Into Focus”, //World Politics Review//, June 5, 2017.  In Gowan’s words, “Labour offers to back a ‘U.N. Emergency Peace Service,’ which sounds very much like a standing international army. This is the sort of concept that you only promise to back if you write a manifesto believing you have no chance of victory."​ https://​www.worldpoliticsreview.com/​articles/​22350/​in-the-u-k-elections-a-post-brexit-internationalist-vision-comes-into-focus)) A GAPW affiliate wrote about the '​demise'​ of the UNEPS initiative, citing the absence of a TAN.((Annie Herro, “The Quest for a United Nations Standing Army”, Oxford Research Group, March 22, 2018. As Dr. Herro writes, “I have studied the role that a transnational advocacy network has played in contributing to the demise of the most recent proposal for a UN standing force — the UN Emergency Peace Service proposal — yet similar findings could be applied to previous proposals. ”https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​Blog/​the-quest-for-a-united-nations-standing-army)) ORG's senior fellow, Paul Rogers, proposed a compromise: a UN Standing Force, composed of national militaries, with UK forces in a lead role.((Paul Rogers, “Sustainable Security: Global Ideas for a Greater Britain”, Oxford Research Group, June 29, 2018. https://​www.oxfordresearchgroup.org.uk/​sustainable-security-global-ideas-for-a-greater-britain))  ​
  
 The UNEPS proposal will encounter even more opposition if it acquires traction. Inevitably, national defence establishments and the global military-industrial complex will attempt to keep the old game alive. They control a network of embedded gatekeepers,​ academics, media and foundations with public-private partnerships. The unwarranted influence of appropriating and disrupting has already strained the UNEPS initiative. ​ The UNEPS proposal will encounter even more opposition if it acquires traction. Inevitably, national defence establishments and the global military-industrial complex will attempt to keep the old game alive. They control a network of embedded gatekeepers,​ academics, media and foundations with public-private partnerships. The unwarranted influence of appropriating and disrupting has already strained the UNEPS initiative. ​
  
-Yet in the words of Stephen Kinloch, "​driven back, the idea will, as in the past, ineluctably re-emerge, Phoenix-like,​ at the most favourable opportunity."​((Stephen P. Kinloch, “Utopian or Pragmatic? A UN Permanent Military Volunteer Force”, ​//International Peacekeeping//, vol. 3, no. 4, Winter 1996, p. 185.))  ​+Yet in the words of Stephen Kinloch, "​driven back, the idea will, as in the past, ineluctably re-emerge, Phoenix-like,​ at the most favourable opportunity."​((Stephen P. Kinloch, “Utopian or Pragmatic? A UN Permanent Military Volunteer Force”, International Peacekeeping,​ vol. 3, no. 4, Winter 1996, p. 185. Available: https://​www.tandfonline.com/​doi/​abs/​10.1080/​13533319608413645))  ​
  
 ==== Next Steps ==== ==== Next Steps ====
  
-If there is to be a UNEPScivil society must press political ​leaders ​to think bigbold and outward, encouraging multilateral cooperationinnovation ​and unprecedented shifts. Such a transformation may arise either after a tragic shock or when civil society reaches a tipping point of concern over the multiplying global challenges. ​+With pivotal elections aheadprogressive policy options, including UNEPS are on the agenda. ​ A political ​shift may accompany a paradigm shift. Obviously, the prevailing approaches ​to securitypeacepeople ​and the planet are ineffective. An unfavorable environment may shift rapidly. Such a transformation may arise either after a tragic shock or when civil society reaches a tipping point of concern over the multiplying global challenges. Already, there is renewed interest in a more just world, in making the United Nations more effective, in military transformation and economic conversion. Now, the onus is to be prepared.
  
-With pivotal elections aheadprogressive policy optionsincluding UNEPS are on the agenda. A political ​shift may accompany a paradigm shift. Obviously, the prevailing approaches ​to securitypeace, people ​and the planet are ineffective. An unfavorable environment may shift rapidly. Alreadythere is renewed interest in a more just worldin making the United Nations more effective, in military transformation ​and economic conversion. Now, the onus is to be prepared.+Firstif there is to be a UNEPScivil society must press political ​leaders ​to think bigbold and outwardencouraging multilateral cooperationinnovation ​and unprecedented shifts.
  
-First, it will be helpful ​to upgrade ​the all-volunteer UNEPS initiative to a professional campaign. With modest financial support, a UNEPS may be adopted by other progressive parties. ​+Second, it’s crucial ​to elevate ​the all-volunteer UNEPS initiative to a professional campaign. With modest financial support, a UNEPS may be adopted by other progressive parties. ​ 
  
-Second, educational outreach must include political outreach, particularly among progressive parties world-wide. And indeed, some leaders are now encouraging a renewal of progressive internationalism.((For example see “In Rebuke to Trumpian Division and Authoritarianism,​ Bernie Sanders Champions ‘Unity’ and ’Common Humanity’” in //Visionary Speech: Common Dreams// October 10, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​10/​10/​rebuke-trumpian-division-and-authoritarianism-bernie-sanders-champions-unity-and Dan Plesch, “Progressives Need a New Internationalist Policy”, //Foreign Policy in Focus//,  October 22, 2018. https://​fpif.org/​progressives-need-a-new-internationalist-policy/​. “It Is Time for Progressives of the World to Unite: Sanders-Varoufakis Issue Open Call for New Global Movement”,​ //Common Dreams//, November 30, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​11/​30/​it-time-progressives-world-unite-sanders-varoufakis-issue-open-call-new-global “The Sanders Institute’s Gathering Was About Saving the World, But It Was Not About Bernie Sanders”, //Common Dreams//, December 10, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​12/​10/​sanders-institutes-gathering-was-about-saving-world-it-was-not-about-bernie-sanders)) To influence at a high level, this initiative needs a competent briefing team for national capitals, Member States Missions to the UN and the UN Secretariat. Aside from sharing understanding of the idea and addressing concerns, another objective should be to encourage another '​Friends'​ group of supportive Member States. ​+Third, educational outreach must include political outreach, particularly among progressive parties world-wide. And indeed, some leaders are now encouraging a renewal of progressive internationalism.((For example see “In Rebuke to Trumpian Division and Authoritarianism,​ Bernie Sanders Champions ‘Unity’ and ’Common Humanity’” in //Visionary Speech: Common Dreams// October 10, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​10/​10/​rebuke-trumpian-division-and-authoritarianism-bernie-sanders-champions-unity-and Dan Plesch, “Progressives Need a New Internationalist Policy”, //Foreign Policy in Focus//,  October 22, 2018. https://​fpif.org/​progressives-need-a-new-internationalist-policy/​. “It Is Time for Progressives of the World to Unite: Sanders-Varoufakis Issue Open Call for New Global Movement”,​ //Common Dreams//, November 30, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​11/​30/​it-time-progressives-world-unite-sanders-varoufakis-issue-open-call-new-global “The Sanders Institute’s Gathering Was About Saving the World, But It Was Not About Bernie Sanders”, //Common Dreams//, December 10, 2018. https://​www.commondreams.org/​news/​2018/​12/​10/​sanders-institutes-gathering-was-about-saving-world-it-was-not-about-bernie-sanders)) To influence at a high level, this initiative needs a competent briefing team for national capitals, Member States Missions to the UN and the UN Secretariat. Aside from sharing understanding of the idea and addressing concerns, another objective should be to encourage another '​Friends'​ group of supportive Member States. ​
  
-Third, links should be created between UNEPS support and the NGO communities that address climate change, social justice, and sustainable development. Clearly, there is a need to build bridges and partnerships. The umbrella of sustainable common security encourages such support and solidarity, as well as the substantive shifts urgently needed to address global challenges.((See,​ Langille, ​Sustainable Common Security, Mondial, World Federalist Movement - Canada, December 2016. https://​www.wfmcanada.org/​2016/​12/​sustainable-common-security/​Also see Langille, ​Pulling Together for Sustainable Common Security, The Rideau Institute, June 11, 2018. https://​www.rideauinstitute.ca/​2018/​06/​11/​pulling-together-for-sustainable-common-security/)) +Fourth, links should be created between UNEPS support and the NGO communities that address climate change, social justice, and sustainable development. Clearly, there is a need to build bridges and partnerships. The umbrella of sustainable common security encourages such support and solidarity, as well as the substantive shifts urgently needed to address global challenges.((See,​ Langille, ​"Sustainable Common Security", Mondial, World Federalist Movement - Canada, December 2016. Available: ​https://​www.wfmcanada.org/​2016/​12/​sustainable-common-security/​ 
 +Also seeLangille, ​"Pulling Together for Sustainable Common Security", The Rideau Institute, June 11, 2018. 
 +Available: ​https://​www.rideauinstitute.ca/​2018/​06/​11/​pulling-together-for-sustainable-common-security)) ​
  
-Fourth, as noted in a 2012 publication of Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (foundation),​ "to attract a broad-based constituency of support, the UNEPS initiative needs to expand into a more formal network of civil society organizations,​ academic institutions and inclined member states. It is time to encourage global centers for UNEPS research and educational outreach."​((Langille,​ “Preparing for a UN Emergency Peace Service”, FES Perspective Paper, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New York, August 2012. http://​library.fes.de/​pdf-files/​iez/​09282.pdf)) ​+Fifth, as noted in a 2012 publication of Friedrich Ebert Stiftung (foundation),​ "to attract a broad-based constituency of support, the UNEPS initiative needs to expand into a more formal network of civil society organizations,​ academic institutions and inclined member states. It is time to encourage global centers for UNEPS research and educational outreach."​((Langille,​ “Preparing for a UN Emergency Peace Service”, FES Perspective Paper, Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, New York, August 2012. http://​library.fes.de/​pdf-files/​iez/​09282.pdf)) ​
  
-Fifth, the UNEPS initiative needs a plethora of publications world-wide. As noted, "the UNEPS proposal requires further elaboration in a blueprint. An in-depth study is needed to provide details into the various requirements at the political, strategic, operational and tactical levels. A review by a panel of independent experts would also be helpful to clarify the potential costs, benefits, options and optimal approach." ​+Sixth, the UNEPS initiative needs a plethora of publications world-wide. As noted, "the UNEPS proposal requires further elaboration in a blueprint. An in-depth study is needed to provide details into the various requirements at the political, strategic, operational and tactical levels. A review by a panel of independent experts would also be helpful to clarify the potential costs, benefits, options and optimal approach."​((ibid.))
  
-A UNEPS is no panacea, but just one step toward a global peace system. ​It is one initiative within a huge project: to save the world.+A UNEPS is no panacea, but just one step toward a global peace system. ​With modest support, this option could make a world of difference. As William R. Frye noted, “that which is radical ​one year can become conservative and accepted ​the next.”((William R. Frye, //A United Nations Peace Force//, (New York: Oceana Publications,​ 1957).))
  
  
all_states_shall_develop_a_un_emergency_peace_service_to_protect_civilians_and_respond_to_crises.1555627789.txt.gz · Last modified: 2019/04/18 22:49 by 192.252.166.4