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all_states_shall_accelerate_sdg_efforts_to_end_poverty_and_enable_all_to_obtain_food_and_potable_water [2019/01/28 01:51]
192.252.163.149 [13. All states shall accelerate SDG efforts to end poverty and enable all to obtain food and potable water.]
all_states_shall_accelerate_sdg_efforts_to_end_poverty_and_enable_all_to_obtain_food_and_potable_water [2019/06/23 09:37]
99.238.240.127
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 Rapporteur: Marianne Larsen Rapporteur: Marianne Larsen
  
-==== Definition ====+==== Hunger and Famine ==== 
 + 
 +Project Save the World addresses six global threats that may each sharply break from the routine challenges of human experience, with quick catastrophic effects. We do not focus on chronic or intermittent problems that are not existential challenges to humankind or our civilization. Thus, we address famine but not “food insecurity,​” or ordinary “hunger” — the shortage of nutrients that have frequently been experienced,​ probably by the majority of human beings throughout history. However, we recognize that it would be wrong and foolish to ignore “normal” hunger, so our Platform for Survival mentions it briefly in this plank, especially in connection with the current campaign by the United Nations to promote the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Accordingly,​ we should at least touch upon the challenge feeding the human population in the decades ahead before turning to famine as the main topic of this article.  
 + 
 +The human population may reach a maximum size of around eleven billion by the end of this century. Already we number 7.3 billion, and therefore we must prepare for about a 65 percent increase in food production. Is this possible? Probably so, though many things — most obviously the climate — can interfere. There is already far more food per capita available on the planet today than would be needed if it were divided equally among the whole human population. Production has kept ahead of population growth and can continue doing so; that is not the main problem. 
 + 
 +But while some populations consume more than their fair share of the world'​s food (indeed, more than is good for them) there are billions who consume too little already. About thirty percent of all food is wasted — thrown away without being consumed. The poor have too little food, and what they eat usually is not the optimum combination of proteins, carbohydrates,​ and fats.  
 + 
 +Most people now buy their food instead of producing it themselves, so their intake is affected greatly by the price. Yet lately the price of food is not determined by the relationship between supply and demand, as ordinary economic theory would predict. It has been much more affected by the world price of oil!  The production and distribution of food depends largely on machinery and chemicals, which in turn are affected by the price of oil.  
 + 
 +There is also the growing influence of the climate. Global warming is not the cause of famine, as we shall see below, but it is increasingly determining overall food production. When Russia'​s wheat crop failed a few years ago, the country stopped all its exports of grain for the year, which greatly increased the world price of food and led to civil unrest in many countries, most notably in the Middle East, where most food is imported. The Arab Spring was one outcome. Global politics is a stronger factor in determining hunger now than the conventional factors: supply and demand.  
 + 
 +Nevertheless,​ it is probable that sufficient food can be produced to feed the maximum human population that must be expected. However, there are four great challenges to be addressed:​ 
 +//1. How will we produce that food?// Are the methods sustainable? ​ (See plank 14.)  
 +//2. Who will get the food?// ​ Is the allocation of food equitable? Will some remain hungry while other food is wasted? 
 +//3. What __kind__ of food will be produced and distributed?//​ How must our dietary habits change?  
 +//4. How will we allocate the energy necessary to produce the food and how will we distribute it equitably and without waste?// 
 + 
 +All of these questions are addressed to some extent by other planks in the Platform. The remainder of this article, however, will address a very specific type of food deprivation event: famine. 
 + 
 +==== Definition ​of Famine ​====
  
 Like most complex social phenomena, definitions (and related causes and solutions) of famine are contested. Moreover, many cases diagnosed as ‘famine’ do not meet textbook definitions,​ which are often subjective, used loosely, and/or not be transferable from one community to the next (de Waal, 2000). One useful definition breaks famine down into its constituent parts: Like most complex social phenomena, definitions (and related causes and solutions) of famine are contested. Moreover, many cases diagnosed as ‘famine’ do not meet textbook definitions,​ which are often subjective, used loosely, and/or not be transferable from one community to the next (de Waal, 2000). One useful definition breaks famine down into its constituent parts:
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   - //Social and economic responses/////​resistance//​ of individuals,​ families and groups to each of the above (de Waal, 2000). ​   - //Social and economic responses/////​resistance//​ of individuals,​ families and groups to each of the above (de Waal, 2000). ​
  
-Famine, it must be noted, can occur without all of these components being present/+Famine, it must be noted, can occur without all of these components being present.
  
 === Classification Systems === === Classification Systems ===
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 According to this definition, areas are declared to be in famine only when substantial deaths have occurred due to lack of food consumption on its own or by its interaction with disease. By classifying famine as “situations where mass deaths have already taken place due to starvation, the IPC Famine area classification is only applied to a situation that is the outcome of a sequential and causal series of events between severe food deficits, acute malnutrition and the final expression of deaths” (IPC, 2016, p. 2). According to this definition, areas are declared to be in famine only when substantial deaths have occurred due to lack of food consumption on its own or by its interaction with disease. By classifying famine as “situations where mass deaths have already taken place due to starvation, the IPC Famine area classification is only applied to a situation that is the outcome of a sequential and causal series of events between severe food deficits, acute malnutrition and the final expression of deaths” (IPC, 2016, p. 2).
  
-//IPC Acute Food Insecurity Reference Table for Area Classification//​ (IPC Global Partners, 2012). 
  
 Other definitions of famine challenge the idea that famine is a discrete event triggered by food shortage resulting in mass deaths by starvation. For example, Devereux (2000) notes that mass starvation and deaths is only one possible outcome of famine and that we need to consider other outcomes such as fertility decline, economic destitution,​ community breakdown, distress migration and exposure to new diseases. Thus, famines could be declared even without widespread deaths, allowing situations where extreme food gaps, displacement,​ and total collapse of livelihoods and high acute malnutrition to be considered famine. ​ Other definitions of famine challenge the idea that famine is a discrete event triggered by food shortage resulting in mass deaths by starvation. For example, Devereux (2000) notes that mass starvation and deaths is only one possible outcome of famine and that we need to consider other outcomes such as fertility decline, economic destitution,​ community breakdown, distress migration and exposure to new diseases. Thus, famines could be declared even without widespread deaths, allowing situations where extreme food gaps, displacement,​ and total collapse of livelihoods and high acute malnutrition to be considered famine. ​
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 a) Time a) Time
  
-Famines last different amounts of time. The Somalia famine in 2011–12 and the Dutch Hongerwinter famine of 1944–45 only lasted a few months. In the cases of Ireland in the late 1840s, and China in 1959–61, famines lasted a few years. ​[other examples??​] ​+Famines last different amounts of time. The Somalia famine in 2011–12 and the Dutch Hongerwinter famine of 1944–45 only lasted a few months. In the cases of Ireland in the late 1840s, and China in 1959–61, famines lasted a few years. ​
  
 b) Severity ​ b) Severity ​
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   - Famines in which there are spectacularly high death rates alongside severe social dislocation and collapse (p. 7)   - Famines in which there are spectacularly high death rates alongside severe social dislocation and collapse (p. 7)
  
-Four-point scale for ‘famine crimes’ developed by David Marcus (2003) <– MORE HERE -> 
  
-c) Kind of society affected 
- 
-Another typology of famine concerns the type of society affected and the main causes of the famine: 
- 
-[de Waal table here] 
  
 === Causes of Famine === === Causes of Famine ===
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   - Sudan (1986-88)   - Sudan (1986-88)
  
-de Waal (2000) explains that while civil rights and free speech under democracies have the potential to contribute to social and economic rights, including the right to food, history has shown us that the “gross abuses of social, economic and cultural rights can exist in democracies” ​(p. 13).+De Waal (2000) explains that while civil rights and free speech under democracies have the potential to contribute to social and economic rights, including the right to food, history has shown us that the “gross abuses of social, economic and cultural rights can exist in democracies” ​
  
 b) State-sponsored famines b) State-sponsored famines
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 Famine has also occurred due to government policies. Here are two examples: Famine has also occurred due to government policies. Here are two examples:
  
-i) The Chinese Great Leap Famine (1959–61)+//i) The Chinese Great Leap Famine (1959–61)// . In 1958, Mao Zedong'​s Communist Government launched the Great Leap Forward campaign, aimed at rapidly industrializing the country. The government forcibly took control of agriculture. Barely enough grain was left for the peasants, and starvation occurred in many rural areas. Exportation of grain continued despite the famine and the government attempted to conceal it. While the famine is attributed to unintended consequences,​ it is believed that the government refused to acknowledge the problem, thereby further contributing to the deaths. In many instances, peasants were persecuted. Between 20 and 45 million people perished in this famine, making it one the greatest modern famine ever in terms of lives lost (Thaxton, 2008).
  
-In 1958, Mao Zedong'​s Communist Government launched the Great Leap Forward campaign, aimed at rapidly industrializing the country. The government forcibly took control of agriculture. Barely enough grain was left for the peasants, and starvation occurred in many rural areas. Exportation of grain continued despite the famine and the government attempted to conceal it. While the famine is attributed to unintended consequences,​ it is believed that the government refused to acknowledge the problem, thereby further contributing to the deaths. In many instances, peasants were persecuted. Between 20 and 45 million people perished in this famine, making it one the greatest modern famine ever in terms of lives lost (Thaxton, 2008). +//ii) The Holodomor - Soviet famine (1932–1933)// . In 1932, under the rule of the USSR, Ukraine experienced one of its largest famines. Between 2.4 and 7.5 million peasants died as a result of a state sponsored famine. It was termed the Holodomor as it was a deliberate campaign of repression designed to eliminate resistance to the government’s forced collectivization of agriculture. Forced grain quotas imposed upon the rural peasants and a brutal reign of terror contributed to the widespread famine. The Soviet government continued to deny the problem and it did not provide aid to the victims nor did it accept foreign aid (Tauger, 2001).
- +
-ii) The Holodomor - Soviet famine (1932–1933) +
- +
-In 1932, under the rule of the USSR, Ukraine experienced one of its largest famines. Between 2.4 and 7.5 million peasants died as a result of a state sponsored famine. It was termed the Holodomor as it was a deliberate campaign of repression designed to eliminate resistance to the government’s forced collectivization of agriculture. Forced grain quotas imposed upon the rural peasants and a brutal reign of terror contributed to the widespread famine. The Soviet government continued to deny the problem and it did not provide aid to the victims nor did it accept foreign aid (Tauger, 2001).+
  
 c) Famine and war c) Famine and war
  
 //War and famine, two fearsome horsemen, have long ridden side by side. Armed conflict disrupts food systems, destroys livelihoods,​ displaces people, and leaves those who do not flee both terrified and unsure when they will eat their next meal// (de Waal, 2015, p. 23).  //War and famine, two fearsome horsemen, have long ridden side by side. Armed conflict disrupts food systems, destroys livelihoods,​ displaces people, and leaves those who do not flee both terrified and unsure when they will eat their next meal// (de Waal, 2015, p. 23). 
- 
-war (Sancerre in central France in 1572–73, Leningrad in 1941–44, the western Netherlands in 1944–45) <-- Ó Gráda [MORE TO GO HERE] --> 
  
 Nearly half of all famines between 1870-2010 occurred during active armed conflict. Over one-quarter of all famines took place during conditions of active political repression, and 3.28% of famines occurred in countries emerging from conflict. Only one-fifth of famines occurred in countries with no conflict or political repression (World Peace Foundation, 2015). ​ Nearly half of all famines between 1870-2010 occurred during active armed conflict. Over one-quarter of all famines took place during conditions of active political repression, and 3.28% of famines occurred in countries emerging from conflict. Only one-fifth of famines occurred in countries with no conflict or political repression (World Peace Foundation, 2015). ​
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 d) Famine and climate change d) Famine and climate change
  
-Global climate change has challenged the Earth'​s ability to produce food, causing food production fluctuations and shortfalls, potentially leading to famine (Physicians for Social Responsibility,​ 2013). We see this currently in Somalia where climate change has played a significant role in famine there. [de Waal 2018 takes issue with the contention that global warming causes famine]+Global climate change has challenged the Earth'​s ability to produce food, causing food production fluctuations and shortfalls, potentially leading to famine (Physicians for Social Responsibility,​ 2013). We see this currently in Somalia where climate change has played a significant role in famine there. [De Waal 2018 takes issue with the contention that global warming ​currently ​causes famine]
  
-Essay 5 in Ó Gráda’s book - “Famine Is Not the Problem—For Now” assesses the challenge posed by the prospect of global warming – [ORDERED FROM LIBRARY TO READ] 
  
 ==== OTHER TOPICS: ==== ==== OTHER TOPICS: ====
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 Almost every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout its history. The geography of modern famine is overwhelmingly a story of Asia and eastern Europe, which account for 87% of famine deaths in the period. Approximately half of these (56.5 million) were in East and South-east Asia. South Asia accounted for 16.5 million deaths. Europe including the USSR accounted for 18.17 million famine related deaths. African famine deaths during the entire period are estimated at 9% of the total ( 9.575 million deaths), with the majority occurring in the late nineteenth century in Congo and north-east Africa. ​ Latin America counted about 1.5 million famine deaths, all in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The Middle East has an estimated 2.07 million deaths, most associated with World War One and the Armenian genocide (World Peace Foundation, 2015). ​ Almost every inhabited continent in the world has experienced a period of famine throughout its history. The geography of modern famine is overwhelmingly a story of Asia and eastern Europe, which account for 87% of famine deaths in the period. Approximately half of these (56.5 million) were in East and South-east Asia. South Asia accounted for 16.5 million deaths. Europe including the USSR accounted for 18.17 million famine related deaths. African famine deaths during the entire period are estimated at 9% of the total ( 9.575 million deaths), with the majority occurring in the late nineteenth century in Congo and north-east Africa. ​ Latin America counted about 1.5 million famine deaths, all in Brazil in the nineteenth century. The Middle East has an estimated 2.07 million deaths, most associated with World War One and the Armenian genocide (World Peace Foundation, 2015). ​
  
-(World Peace Foundation, 2015). ​ 
  
 //History of Famine// //History of Famine//
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 In the 21<​sup>​st</​sup>​ century, calamitous famines—those causing more than 1 million deaths— have been eliminated. Until recently, great famines have been more common. Deaths from these famines exceeded 15 million in five separate decades in the 20th century. In the 21st century, the death toll from great famines is near 600,000, still cause for concern, although relatively low by historical standards (von Grebmer et al, 2015, p. 5). There are a few exceptions, such as Somalia in 2011–12. Nowadays the closest countries outside parts of sub-Saharan Africa come to famine is what the Food and Agricultural Organization dubs “severe localized food insecurity,​” and that hardly ever culminates in famine (Ó Gráda, 2015). In the 21<​sup>​st</​sup>​ century, calamitous famines—those causing more than 1 million deaths— have been eliminated. Until recently, great famines have been more common. Deaths from these famines exceeded 15 million in five separate decades in the 20th century. In the 21st century, the death toll from great famines is near 600,000, still cause for concern, although relatively low by historical standards (von Grebmer et al, 2015, p. 5). There are a few exceptions, such as Somalia in 2011–12. Nowadays the closest countries outside parts of sub-Saharan Africa come to famine is what the Food and Agricultural Organization dubs “severe localized food insecurity,​” and that hardly ever culminates in famine (Ó Gráda, 2015).
  
-*Examples of 21<​sup>​st</​sup>​ century famines* 
  
 //​Ethiopia//​ (1983-85)- experienced multiple, simultaneous civil wars between 1974 and 1991, along with severe famines during this period, including the worst famine in current history between 1983 and 1985 (Africa Watch 1991; von Braun & Olofinbiyi 2007). //​Ethiopia//​ (1983-85)- experienced multiple, simultaneous civil wars between 1974 and 1991, along with severe famines during this period, including the worst famine in current history between 1983 and 1985 (Africa Watch 1991; von Braun & Olofinbiyi 2007).
  
-//Northeast Nigeria// 
- 
-//Somalia// (2011-12) – <-- NEED TO WRITE THIS --> 
- 
-Different factors – drought, spike in the price of food, war 
- 
-//South Sudan// 
- 
-The famine in South Sudan is ‘man-made’,​ and here we see a clear link between famine and lack of democracy. South Sudan w became an independent nation in 2011, and since then it has been plagued by civil war. All involved in the conflict are parties to the famine. A localized famine was declared for Leer and Mayendit [counties] on 20 February 2017, an area where violence and insecurity have compromised humanitarian access for years. More than one million children are estimated to be acutely malnourished across the country; including 270,000 children who face the imminent risk of death should they not be reached in time with assistance (O’Brien, 2017). 
  
-//Yemen//+//South Sudan// The famine in South Sudan is ‘man-made’,​ and here we see a clear link between famine and lack of democracy. South Sudan became an independent nation in 2011, and since then it has been plagued by civil war. All involved in the conflict are parties to the famine. A localized famine was declared for Leer and Mayendit [counties] on 20 February 2017, an area where violence and insecurity have compromised humanitarian access for years. More than one million children are estimated to be acutely malnourished across the country; including 270,000 children who face the imminent risk of death should they not be reached in time with assistance (O’Brien, 2017).
  
-The current famine in Yemen has been caused by the Saudi-Arabian led intervention in Yemen and the blockage imposed by Saudi Arabia and its allies. According to an October 2018 article by the United Nations, around 14 million people or half of the population of Yemen is at risk of famine. At the end of 2017, 130 children were dying every day from extreme hunger and disease (United Nations, 2018a)+//​Yemen//  ​The current famine in Yemen has been caused by the Saudi-Arabian led intervention in Yemen and the blockage imposed by Saudi Arabia and its allies. According to an October 2018 article by the United Nations, around 14 million people or half of the population of Yemen is at risk of famine. At the end of 2017, 130 children were dying every day from extreme hunger and disease (United Nations, 2018a)
  
 === Famine Response and Prevention === === Famine Response and Prevention ===
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 //Political Solutions// //Political Solutions//
  
-Given the political nature of famine, as outlined above, political institutions can and have played a role in preventing famine. Sen (1981) has shown how liberal institutions in India, including competitive elections and a free press, have played a major role in preventing famine there since independence. ​<-- MORE HERE? -->+Given the political nature of famine, as outlined above, political institutions can and have played a role in preventing famine. Sen (1981) has shown how liberal institutions in India, including competitive elections and a free press, have played a major role in preventing famine there since independence. ​
  
 //​Anti-famine political contract// (de Waal, 2000) //​Anti-famine political contract// (de Waal, 2000)
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 Goal 3: Good health and well-being Goal 3: Good health and well-being
  
-To end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis,​ malaria and other communicable diseases/+To end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis,​ malaria and other communicable diseases.
  
 Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation Goal 6: Clean Water and Sanitation
all_states_shall_accelerate_sdg_efforts_to_end_poverty_and_enable_all_to_obtain_food_and_potable_water.txt · Last modified: 2019/06/23 09:37 by 99.238.240.127